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Brief History of Type Design by Leslie

In the same way that virtually everything we produce — from fabrics to the clothing for which they are used; from home furnishings to the buildings in which they reside — is influenced by prevailing trends, so is the case with headline or display type.

Since the invention of the steam-driven printing press in by Friedrich König in 1814, few art forms have evolved with such astonishing speed as typography. Display type has also proved to be infinitely malleable, reflecting a broad range of cultural influences and frequently playing an important role as the harbinger of major stylistic shifts.

Paper

1874

Victorian

The ornate type of the Victorian Era (1837–1901) is often regarded as an aesthetic response to the Industrial Revolution. In fact, the unparalleled proliferation of printed material and carelessness with which type was set in the early 19th century made a compelling case for graphic design, a new discipline that was immediately applied to, among other things, a unique form of communication that also benefited greatly from innovations in printing: advertising.

More info on illustrations from the Victorian Era:

Charles H. Bennett

Chambers’ Almanac

Punch

Santa Claus and Thomas Nast

Shakespeare’s Heroines

Paper

1894

Art and Crafts

The Industrial Revolution held the promise of a better quality of life for those who could afford it, but many influential artists such as John Ruskin found the mass-produced goods that resulted aesthetically lacking. William Morris, Ruskin’s colleague, was a reformer who sought to imbue everyday life with art by fabricating tastefully superior handcrafted furnishings. The resulting, aptly-named Arts and Crafts Movement (1850–1900) led to a new era of “decorative honesty,” in which the artist’s hand was again evident in all things — mass-produced or not — including typography.

Paper

1897

Art Nouveau

The artful approach to mass production carried over into the subsequent Art Nouveau style of the late 19th century, as exemplified in the work of Alphonse Mucha, Louis Comfort Tiffany and Aubrey Beardsley. The voluptuous curvilinear forms that are the hallmark of the era were visible in everything from architecture — including Parisian architect Hector Guimard’s inspired designs for entrances to the Paris Metro system — to typography.

Paper

1925

Art Deco

With the inception of the 20th century came the abstractions of Modernism, a movement that encompassed both Cubism and the solemnly utopian ideals of the Bauhaus style. Yet, by the end of the First World War, the middle class — the primary consumers of the era — yearned for a less threatening, more accessible style. Although already well underway by 1925, the new era in applied arts was named for the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, which opened in Paris that year.

Paper

1935

Characterized by geometric designs, symmetrical patterns and the ubiquitous sunray motif evident on Egyptian artifacts unearthed when Tutankhamen’s tomb was discovered in 1922, Art Deco was immediately embraced by the graphic arts community. Thanks in part to new materials such as plastic, the style was reproduced in everything from cameras and radios to bangles and earrings. Art Deco continued to evolve until the beginning of World War II, when global upheaval brought an end to the luxurious excesses of the Jazz Age.

This article was published on Saturday 22 December, 2007.
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